In this short video, we provide an insight into the elements of what makes up a qualifying claim for R&D tax credit purposes.
Often companies are unsure of what a successful claim might look like so here we summarise key characteristics (not exhaustive) including:
No single qualifying R&D tax project is ever the same but these are some of the common attributes that might help you think about whether you have been undertaking project work that might qualify under this generous UK government tax relief.
Here is a short video summary of the key findings from HMRC's annual report on Research and Development Tax Credits dated September 2017:
The statistics relate to the 2015-2016 year and show a promising uptick in claims for R&D tax relief from previous years. This is no doubt due to an increasing awareness by first time claimant companies plus repeat claims by those companies already claiming.
Key findings from the HMRC R&D Tax Credit Statistics (2017):
These figures are encouraging but there is still further to go before all of the companies that could claim - do claim. From our experience, the cashflow benefits of R&D tax claims can be significant to a company and therefore it is important that all companies give this tax relief some detailed consideration.
You can access the full HMRC analyses and documents here.
Philip Hammond delivered his Spring Budget Statement today kicking off his first tax announcement directly addressing the importance of the UK R&D Tax Credits incentive to business and the UK's worldwide competitiveness
Any efforts to reduce the administrative burden and make the R&D tax relief more accessible to companies is welcomed.
We look forward to hearing more about proposed improvements and helping companies make the most of this most generous UK Government tax incentive
In this article, we provide an detailed look at everything you need to know about the Research and Development Expenditure Credit - more commonly known as the "RDEC" for short.
The Research and Development Expenditure Credit ('RDEC') is a UK Government tax incentive available to 'Large companies' (see definition below) and replaces the legacy enhanced corporation deduction (30%) with effect from 1 April 2016.
This supplements the SME R&D Tax Credit Relief and applies to companies that are not defined as SMEs.
It can also cover certain situations where the SME R&D tax relief is not available to SMEs (see further below).
SME - subsidised expenditure
SME > €7.5m
Companies (or groups) that fail the SME thresholds for R&D tax purposes - see further below
SMEs acting in capacity of subcontractors on behalf of Large Companies
SMEs in receipt of grant funding or other subsidised R&D work
SMEs that exceed the maximum SME project expenditure limit of €7.5m
A SME is defined for R&D purposes as a company with:
Group companies need to be considered plus linked or partner enterprises as part of this test.
The following costs are eligible under the Large Company RDEC scheme:
This is broadly similar to the definitions for SME R&D tax credits although particular note should be taken of the more restrictive interpretation of qualifying subcontracted costs.
The current rate of uplift on qualifying expenditure under the RDEC is 11% (10% up until 1 April 2015). The Autumn Statement 2017 announced an uplift in the RDEC rate to 12% for expenditure incurred from 1 January 2018.
The 11% uplift (12% from 1 January 2018) is applied to the total of the qualifying expenditure for R&D tax purposes under the Large Company scheme.
Up until 1 April 2016, Large Companies had access to two R&D tax reliefs:
No R&D tax cash credit was available under the legacy scheme noted in point 1 above. This legacy Large Company enhanced R&D relief was phased out in full with effect from 1 April 2016
The RDEC operates differently to the SME R&D tax scheme in that the uplift on qualifying costs creates a taxable receipt in the profit & loss account - this compares with the SME scheme that recognises the benefit of the R&D tax relief solely through the company's corporation tax line in its statutory accounts.
The credit to the profit and loss account increases profits or decreases losses in the period.
This is why it is often referred to as an 'above the line' credit.
It is recognised above the line in order to reflect the benefit of the R&D tax relief to the company. As it can otherwise often be overlooked when processed solely through the tax line - treated in this way, it is more akin to a grant in how it is reflected in the company's accounts.
The credit is taxable and - assuming a corporation tax rate of 20% - the cash tax benefit is currently 8.8% of the qualifying R&D expenditure.
In this RDEC worked example calculation, we will apply the current 11% credit rate:
Profitable company example
Less: qualifying R&D tax costs
R&D Tax Credit @ 11%
Profit before tax
CT @ 20%
Less: R&D Tax Credit
Revised tax payable
R&D Cash Tax Benefit = £35,200 or 8.8% of the £400,000 qualifying R&D spend
Loss-making company example
Less: qualifying R&D tax costs
R&D Tax Credit @ 11%
Loss before tax
CT @ 20% (on R&D tax credit)
Less: R&D Tax Credit
R&D cash tax credit payable to company *
R&D Cash Tax Benefit = £35,200 or 8.8% of the £400,000 qualifying R&D spend *
* Note that there are other conditions that must be satisfied before a cash tax credit is payable to the company under the RDEC scheme (see further below).
As noted above, the rates and consequent cashflow impact will improve from 1 January 2018 when the RDEC rate increases to 12%. This partially offsets the decrease in corporation tax rate from 20% to 19% with effect from 1 April 2017.
The 7 stage process is designed to ensure that only those companies that are up-to-date with their tax affairs and payments can benefit from the cash tax rebate option
We are going to simplify the 7 step test to 'just' 5 for our purposes. These five stages may be summarised as follows:
Deduction of corporation tax at main rate
The repayable tax credit is payable only after first deducting the corporation tax due (including on the tax credit) in the period
PAYE / NIC cap
The repayable tax credit is capped by the PAYE/NIC amount paid by the company in the period in relation to the staff engaged in the R&D - note that this cap does not take into account the % apportionment applied to the employee staff costs as part of the claim calculation
PAYE / NIC / VAT arrears payable first
The repayable tax credit is payable to the company only after HMRC has checked for any arrears in relation to corporation tax, PAYE / NIC or VAT that will be deductible against the credit in advance
Optional set off against group company CT liabilties
The repayable tax credit is offsetable against corporation tax liabilities of group companies in the period
Going concern requirement
The company must be a going concern to be entitled to the cash tax credit
Yes, you read it right - we've simplified the 7 stage test into 5 to capture the essence of HMRC's requirements.
Definition of R&D:
Aside from the fundamental difference in application and approach to give effect to the tax relief within the financial statements of a company, the definitions that underpin the applicability of the R&D tax relief remain the same.
Administrative process for filing a RDEC claim:
With respect to process for filing a claim, a company is required to prepare and file a justification report that supports the underlying nature of the qualifying project work along with supporting claim calculations in the same way as under the SME R&D scheme.
Qualifying costs under RDEC:
In terms of the qualifying expenditure there is one key difference and this is in relation to subcontracted costs.
Subcontracted costs to companies are not eligible under the Large Company scheme. It should be noted, however, that 'externally provided workers' (EPWs) are an eligible cost and therefore it is more important than ever to get the distinction right between EPWs and subcontractor relationships when dealing with RDEC claims.
It should also be noted that in the more restricted situations where the subcontracted costs do apply (e.g. for work subcontracted to qualifying bodies such as Unis or to individuals), the 65% cap that applies under the SME relief does not apply.
The RDEC is applied in a fundamentally different ways to the SME R&D tax credit scheme and therefore there are number of issues to consider:
The RDEC has been designed to work alongside the Patent Box and therefore companies with qualifying patents should ensure that they have considered how to optimise the Patent Box tax relief in addition to the RDEC.
We are specialists in R&D tax credit claims and can offer an end-to-end solution in preparing and filing your RDEC claim with HMRC.
We are also accountants so this means that we can also advise on how your claim fits into the 'bigger picture' of your overall company tax profile.
Give us a call for a no obligation discovery call:
HM Revenue & Customs has recently released a "simple" guide for companies seeking to claim research and development tax relief (R&D tax credits).
Here in this short video we scroll through the pages of the HMRC R&D tax relief guide and give our insights on the points covered in the document:
With the subtitle "Making R&D easier for small companies", the guide is useful for companies that may be new to the R&D tax credit incentive as it seeks to cover the key principles for qualification, eligible costs and some common areas of complexity (e.g. SME definition, subcontractor status etc).
Here's what we like about it:
It is all too easy for UK technology startups to get bogged-down in the red-tape of running a business. Founders are frequently caught up trying to keep on top of books and records to ensure compliance with UK government and HM Revenue & Customs requirements - especially with one eye on a 'clean' future exit event.
This compliance distraction is often at the expense of the myriad of government tax incentives that exist to provide financial and cashflow support to UK startups and fast growing clever companies (potentially a significant expense if missed...).
During the early funding rounds, the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme ('SEIS') and Enterprise Investment Scheme ('EIS') can provide a much welcomed boost to equity financing - It seems that the attraction of the SEIS and EIS tax incentives have caught the imagination of many tech startup entrepreneurs and business angels alike and we continue to help increasing numbers of start-up companies access and navigate these tax incentives.
"Yet we continue to be surprised by the number of tech company founders who are unaware of the R&D tax credits incentive and the potential positive impact this tax relief could have on the company's cashflow (potentially year on year)"
The R&D tax incentive can be claimed alongside the SEIS and EIS tax reliefs to help provide a further boost to the cash equity injection. Also, don't forget that the R&D tax credit relief aims to complement the UK Patent Box tax incentive.
Tech startups can recover up to 33% of the costs that they have incurred on qualifying R&D projects and with the level of innovation across the UK in the tech space, these claims are becoming increasingly commonplace.
So if you are the founder of a tech company in the UK (or from abroad if you have a UK branch), make sure you don't miss the cashflow funding benefits of the R&D tax credits incentive.
Following on from a successful R&D tax credits claim totalling £245,000 when we were first engaged to act last year, our client has just secured a further £188,000 in cash tax relief under the UK R&D Tax Incentive!
Our initial claim totalling £245,000 covered two accounting periods and has since allowed the company to expand its software development team thereby accelerating its progress.
The company was profitable in its most recent financial period and therefore our claim for enhanced R&D tax relief wiped out a corporation tax liability of £54,000 AND created a tax loss that the company could surrender for R&D tax credits totalling £134,000.
The Company is engaged in the development of CRM software architecture. The nature of its technical work involves the development of proprietary algorithms capable of optimising the interactions of the CRM system with its users.
If your company is engaged in the field of software development, please contact us to discuss your potential eligibility for R&D Tax Credits further
HMRC has released its annual Research and Development Tax Credits Statistics for the years 2014-15 that show an increase in R&D tax credits claims
Here is a summary of the key points:
16% increase in number of SME R&D Tax Credits claims up to 18,630 in 2014-15
But it wasn't all necessarily good news - reading between the lines:
22,445 total number of R&D Tax Credits claims V c5m companies in UK - suggests many still missing out...
Here are our thoughts on the statistics announced:
"We are continuing to see increasing numbers of claims for R&D tax credits as general awareness seems to be on the increase - our experience in relation to the sharp increase in IT & Software related claims definitely bears this out with huge numbers of successful claims
But more evidently still needs to be done as the growth in number of claims has slowed in 2014-15
For the total number of companies that are taking a risk in seeking to develop new products or services to be pegged at 22,445 looks like an understatement to us - 22,445 out of c5,000,000 companies....really?"
There is a time-lag as these stats relate to 2014-15 - we expect to see a further uptick to the stats for 2015-16.
It can often be confusing understanding how R&D tax credits are actually claimed by companies.
After all, there are a whole myriad of funding options out there including:
R&D Tax Credits claims are filed with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) within your company's corporation tax return - called a Form CT600.
Your company is required to file a corporation tax after each financial accounting period in order to calculate and disclose to HMRC the amount of corporation tax payable or tax losses claimed.
The CT600 is normally accompanied by a Corporation Tax Computation which shows the details behind the calculations shown in the CT600. To most people, the CT600 is hard to follow as it simply plucks out relevant figures from the corporation tax computation to allow HMRC to extract and process the information they need.
The processing of tax returns is largely automated these days as tax returns, computations and accounts are coded into a form of computer language called iXBRL - but you don't need to worry about this (unless you are filing your return yourself!).
The R&D tax credits claim figures for an SME that is claiming an R&D tax credit payment from HMRC will complete the following boxes within its CT600:
Note that our comments are in italics above and that this relates to a new version of the CT600 for accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2015
A couple more important Boxes not to miss out on the CT600 if you want to ensure a speedy processing of your R&D tax credits claim by HMRC:
As noted above, your R&D tax claim is filed within your CT600 tax return. A return is necessary after each accounting period.
This can cause potentially severe cashflow problems for some companies - especially early stage companies.
Imagine the worst case scenario in which a company elects to have an 18 month accounting period and bumps up against its statutory deadlines at each stage:
That's nearly 2.5 years beginning to end!
Many entrepreneurs and founders are unaware of the potential time lapse between incurring the expenditure on qualifying R&D activities and getting a cash rebate from HMRC. Hopefully this highlights the potential issue...
A better plan for an early stage company might be to map out its cashflow and specific R&D milestones and consider 'shortening' (rather than lengthening as so many companies seem to do) its first accounting period to say 6 months.
With a bit of impetus and focus, a well planned startup might be in a position to recover some of its R&D expenditure within less than one year from incorporation.
A company is required to file a corporation tax return within 12 months of its accounting period end. So a company with a 31 December 2015 period end is required to file its corporation tax return by 31 December 2016.
R&D Tax Credit claims have a two year time-limit in order to make a valid claim.
This means that it is possible to file a claim not only for its most recent period end (31 Dec 2015 in our example above) but also for accounting periods ended within the past two years. If the company had followed 31 Dec calendar year ends in previous periods, then it would be possible to file an amended return for the period ended 31 December 2014 before this time-limit expired on 31 December 2016.
It is possible to make a claim for two or even three periods if a company had changed its accounting period end in the past two years and therefore these period ends still fall within the last two years.
It is worth noting that an accounting period for corporation tax purposes cannot last longer than 12 months. So an 18 month period of account would actually be made up of one corporation tax return covering the first 12 months and a second accounting period lasting 6 months. This is an example of where a company may have more than two open periods within the past two years.
Finally, don't dismiss how far you can go back in time to recapture historical R&D activities and expenditure if the opportunity of claiming R&D tax credits had previously perhaps passed you by....
At the time of writing this article (21 Sept 2016) a company with a period ended 30 Sept would find that it has its periods ended 30 Sept 2015 and 30 Sept 2014 still open for retrospective R&D tax claims.
Taking the 30 Sept 2014 period, a company might have carried out some R&D work in the first three months of this period - that's way back in 1 Oct 2013 - 31 Dec 2013 and this is still open for a claim - for 9 days (and counting.....).